U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR | | JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS |

ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner |

MONTHLY

LABOR REVIEW

| VOLUME 25 NUMBER 6

} | |

}

|

SS

DECEMBER, 1927

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1927

CERTIFICATE

This publication is issued pursuant to the

provisions of the sundry civil act (41 Stats. 1430) approved March 4, 1921.

ADDITIONAL COPIES

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS U. 8S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON, D, C. AT 15 CENTS PER COPY SUBSCRIPTION Prick PER YEAR é Unitep States, CANADA, MEXICO, $1.50; OTHER COUNTRIES, $2.25

Contents

Special articles: Page The work of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.__......_- 1-30 Publie service retirement systems: State employees_______________- 30-46

Explanation of the new index of wholesale prices, by Ethelbert Stewart. 46-52 Industrial relations and labor conditions:

Sixteenth annual safety congress, Chicago, September 26-30, 1927... 53-55 Migration of population to and from farms___-.--.......-..-.--.-- 55-57 Cooperation of employers and workers in England_--_.......-..--- 57-60 Increased labor productivity in large steel plant between 1902 and

1006 ..c.cnmgeececs2 2 Leet eS Semras i 9 Mp emmaaone teenies adden ante 61 Output, costs, and proceeds of the coal-mining industry in England__ 61, 62 Wand Ci I, hadnt on cniiesunce ne4stinusudniinadenveoe 63

Industrial accidents: Reduction of costs of production through reduction or elimination of

PE Sd A gi dn Gage dots deers peyrase \eycita doe inns a ae 64-68 Accidents in United States metal mines in 1925____________.____-- 68-71 Organizations for safety in coal mines____.__.__._...--.-.--.----- 71-7: Explosives as a cause of mine and quarry fatalities____.____._..__-- 7: lowa—Aindustrial accidents, 1925-26.--._....-...-- ~~~ 74 Kansae—industrial accidents, -1926-- === 2 ee le 7 Great Britain—Railway accidents in 1926______._._.__________---.. 75 Mexico—Mine accidents in 1926.._..........-.-.-.2 22 eee 75, 76

Industrial hygiene: An@Rraaeere te @ Cy PUN oo en oe cen coe en ete 7, 78 Eve conservation through the compulsory use of goggles in workshops-_ 79 Occupational diseases of agricultural taborers___............-..---- 80, 81 Australia—Investigation of health hazards in woodworking industries. 81, 82 Great Britain—Telegrapher’s cramp--_....--..--...------------.-- 82-84 Workmen’s compensation and social insurance: Farmers covered by California workmen’s compensation law- ~~. .-- 85 Compensation for eye injuries: in New York State, 1926-27 ___.....-- 86 Double compensation awards to minors in New York State, 1926-27. 86, 87 Lump-sum settlements in New Jersey, 1926-27_.......---------.-- 87, 88 Electrical workers’ old-age pension plan__------- aphasia «3 0 HF 88 British Columbia—Old-age pensions_---..........-------------.-- 88, 89 England—New unemployment insurance bill_---..._-..----.----.- 89, 90 New Zealand—Pensions and pension expenditures -_-_---.---.---- 90-92 Child endowment: a Australian commission on child endowment ___---------.--------- 93 Basic wage and proposed child endowment in western Australia_--_-- 93, 94 Training and placement of the handicapped: Fourth national conference on-vocational civilian rehabilitation _____- 95-97 Vocational rehabilitation in New Jersey _.._....-.---------------- 97 Argentina—Industrial aid for the blind--_-.---..22-2--2---------- 98

IV CONTENTS

Cooperation:

Twelfth international cooperative congress

Making cooperation more interesting___..........-------_______

Cooperative oil associations in Minnesota

Cooperation in the North Central States Labor laws and court decisions:

The Sherman Antitrust Act and labor—The Coronado case__..___ 107-19

Argentina—Enforcement of labor laws_...............---.--__- 110 A

Salvador—Protective legislation for commercial employees Women in Industry:

Trend ef women’s. wages in, Ghio......... cic coiewite babien Sime b-~..-- 111-113

Chile—Decree relating to employment of women_......_.________ 11: Child labor:

Employment of children in Oregon........--..---.---.+----___- 114

Accidents to working children of Ohio_......--..--.---«-.--___- 114-116 Industrial disputes:

Strikes and lockouts in the United States in October, 1927....___ 117-195

Conciliation. work of the Department of Labor in October, 1927__ 125-27

Strikes in New York State, 1925-26 and 1926—-27___._.___.________ 128

Queensland—Railway strike............<.-..---.--...-...-.--- 128-130 Labor organizations and congresses:

Annual convention of American Federation of Labor, 1927____._ 131-135 Wages and hours of labor:

International comparison of real wages as of July 1, 1927.---.------_ 136

Argentina— Wages paid in Buenos Aires in 1926_........._....-__ 137, 138 Brazil—Earning possibilities of unskilled worker in Sao Paulo_____ 138, 139 England— Wage levels, 1914 and 1927_................---.----_. 139-142 New Zealand— Wages in 1926—27_.........-...----.---..------- 142, 143 Russia— Wages in 1926 and 1927__...0..-.4---------..----.---. 143, 144

144

Uruguay— Minimum wage for Government employees__------ --- Trend of employment:

Employment in selected manufacturing industries, October, 1927._ 145-156

Employment and total ‘earnings of railroad employees, September,

1926, and August and September, 1927...................---- 156, 157 Unemployment in Cuban towns............. EE RO 157, 158 State reports on employment:

California

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Maryland

LLL DALAL ADELE AL ANAL OOD 163, 164 I can tok sag os chen tec in clk attane ones him narts os =~ 164-166 Oo) aa aS ae aa ae ee eT ee 166, 167 Pigmmrvenia. .. .. free Dae ee gah 5 168, 169 Ta ak ne rN ee eee on ws 169, 1/0 Wholesale and retail prices: Retail prices of food in the United States_.................------ 171-19 Retail prices of coal in the United States..............-.------- 192-195

Index numbers of wholesale prices in October, 1927 (revised series)... 195-19: Wholesale prices in the United States and in foreign countries, 1923 to Dement ii ii ae be eit» + ~ 197-199 Relative importance of commodities included in the revised index numbers of wholesale prices.................-.-...---------- 200-211

CONTENTS

Cost of living: Family budget of a skilled worker in Moscow, Russia

Labor awards and decisions: {ward of the Railroad Train Service Board of Adjustment for the east- ern region Immigration and emigration: Statistics of immigration for September, 1927 214-218 Activities of State labor bureaus: California, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin Publications relating to labor: OR rem astnbannhviedidinsmirbieion iunie-ce a.m 220, 221 Official—Foreign countries 921-2924 Unofficial 224-228

This Issue in Brief

The work of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics during recent months is reviewed in an article on page 1. The purpose of this article is not only to give.a general idea of the bureau’s activities but also to indicate the methods employed in securing, handling, and publishing information, the activities now under way, and certain lines of study which the bureau should be carrying on but is unable to undertake because of lack of resources.

Retirement systems for State employees, apart from those applicable to special classes such as teachers, have been adopted by six States. The general systems in effect m three of these States—New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania—were described in earlier issues of the Review. An article in the present issue describes the plans of Maine, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, and also gives a general summary and comparison of all six systems (p. 30).

: Anthrax remains a definite hazard in different industries, especially the tanning industry, ia spite of efforts to eradicate it. ‘The Pennsyl- vania Department of Labor and Industry has found as the result of a recent study covering the five-year period 1922-1926 that 7 fatal and 75 nonfatal eases of an industrial origin occurred in the State during that time. Much of the blame for this condition lies in the fact that although there are Federal regulations designed to control and prevent the spread of anthrax among livestock in this country there are no general regulations requiring disinfection of materials from countries in which anthrax is prevalent before the material reaches its des- tination (p. 77).

Eye injuries cost more from the compensation standpoint in New York State than almost any other type of injury, according to data published by the industrial commissioner of that State. It is stated that during the year ending June 30, 1927, there were nearly 3,000 compensated eye injuries in New York State, including 2 cases of death and 10 of. total blindness. The compensation paid for eye injuries averaged about $578 per case, which is more than twice as much as the average for all other types of injury (p. 86).

Exposure to the dusis of various kinds of timber among workers in woodworking industries carries with it the hazard of nasal trouble, asthma, and dermatitis, according to a study of conditions among woodworkers in Australia. The study showed that a high per- centage of the workers had some affection of the nose or throat, that asthma was an occasional result of exposure, and that persons with skins which are hypersensitive to the dusts can not expect to be cured so long as they continue at this employment (p. 81).

The farm laborers of California now share with other employees the benefits of the workman’s compensation law, by act of the 1927 legis- lature. If the farmer does net want the protection which the law affords, he must now elect not to come: under it, whereas formerly the advantages of the act were available to him only if he elected to have the protection (p. 85).

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VIII MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

The Coronado Coal Co. litigation, arising out of labor troxy}) Arkansas in 1914, was settled out of court on October 17, 1927. \y agreement between the parties, after being the cause of two important opinions by the Supreme Court of the United States (p. 107).

That the cooperative movement needs to be made more interesting is the contention of one cooperator of 20 years’ standing. The lac: of appeal to the imagination, the lack of the dramatic and thp picturesque, are in this leader’s opinion a weakness that, if not cor. rected, may eventually prove fatal to the movement. This fact has also been recognized by others and efforts are being made in cooper. ative organizations here and there throughout the country jo humanize cooperation and widen its appeal (p. 101). :

British Columbia is the first Canadian Province to adopt the old-age pension plan authorized by the Canadian Parliament in March, 1927 Under this scheme the Province will pay a maximum pension of $240 per year to such of its residents as have reached the age of 7( and meet the other requirements of the law (p. 88).

An Australian royal commission on child endowment has recently been appointed to consider the subject from the point of view of the Commonwealth as a whole, with special reference to the social and economic effects of such a system. The commission consists of five members, one of whom is a woman (p. 93).

An eight-hour day for men and a seven-hour day for women and minors are established for commercial employees in Salvador under « recent act of the legislative assembly. This act also provides for a weekly rest day, an annual vacation of at least 15 days with pay, and sick leave with pay under certain conditions. The provision of the old law establishing a workers’ compulsory saving fund is omitted (p. 110).

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MONTHLY

LABOR REVIEW

OF U. §. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

VOL. 25, NO. 6 WASHINGTON DECEMBER, 1927

a

The Work of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics

HE character and scope of the bureau’s work may be best 7 described by a review of its major activities during recent months. This is done, very briefly, in the present article. Primarily the Bureau of Labor Statistics is a fact-finding agency. Its duty as set forth in the act creating it is to “collect information upon the subject of labor * * * and the means of promoting the material, social, intellectual, and moral prosperity” of the wage earners of this country. The function of the bureau is thus some- what broader than is commonly understood by the word “statistics.”’ Its field of work not only covers purely statistical data, but also includes other subjects of vital human welfare, such as accident pre- vention, housing, labor legislation, and social insurance in all its yhases. | The activities of the bureau during recent months have covered the collection, compilation, and publication of statistical data regard- ing wages and hours of labor in various industries, union scales of wages and hours of labor, strikes and lockouts and collective agree- ments, employment in selected industries, wholesale prices, retail prices, cost of living, productivity of labor in various industries, in- dustrial accidents, industrial safety codes, labor legislation in the various States and decisions of courts affecting labor, building oper- ations in principal cities of the United States, cooperation, industrial hygiene, workmen’s compensation, personnel activities for employees, State and municipal pensions, labor turnover, apprenticeship in the building trades, and the preparation and publication of the Labor Review. In addition to these more or less permanent lines of work, much of the bureau’s time and energy was taken up with special studies, the principal ones being a health survey in the printing trades, published as Bulletin No. 427, a handbook of American trade- unions, published as Bulletin No. 420, and deaths from lead poisoning, published as Bulletin No. 426.

Wages and Hours of Labor, by Industries

OR many years the principal activity of the Bureau of Labor Statistics was that of gathering and publishing data on wages and hours of labor in the various iolipieten: Formerly this included

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2 MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

three topics—wages, hours of labor, and length of time each »),, was in operation during the year, The last-mentioned sub jec a ever, proved very unsatisfactory, since employers would lis; a bal as in operation if any part of it was in operation, whereas undo; th present subdivision of mdustry into various departments of th same plant one department might work continuously while othe departments were working on part time or entirely closed dow) for a considerable period of the year. This feature of the wage work yy therefore dropped because it is covered in a more satisfactory manne by the bureau’s report on employment in selected industries _

It would be highly desirable, of course, if the bureau’s wave stiydic could cover ali important. industries at least once a year. Limit. tion of funds makes this impossible, and the bureau’s present Doliey is to cover the larger industries once every two years. The folloy. ing brief description of the industrial wage studies made dwriyy recent months will indicate the character of the bureau’s work gloyo this line. r

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Boots and Shoes ©

In collecting wage data for the boot and shoe industry, agents of the bureau during the latter part of 1926 copied wage data for 29,925 males and 22,772 females directly from the pay rolls of 154 repr. sentative shoe factories in 14 States. The52,697 wageearners covered in the 1926 report represent 23.4 per cent of the total number reported in the boot and shoe industry in 1923 by the United States Census of Manufactures.

As a result of this study, average full-time hours per week in the boot and shoe industry were found to be 49; earnings per hour, 52.8 cents; and full-time earnings per week, $25.87. Between 1913 and 1926 average full-time hours per week decreased 11.1 per cent, | average earnings per hour increased 119.1 per cent, and average [ull- time earnir er week increased 95.4 per cent.

Average full-time hours per week for the industry, or of all em- ployees covered in each State in 1926, ranged from 46.2 in New Jersey to 53.4in Maine. Average earnings per hour ranged from 39.8 cents in Maine to 61.2 cents in maton ath Average full-time earnings per week ranged from $21.25 in Maime to $28.83 in Massachusetts.

The summary figures for the industry were published in the March, 1927, Labor Review, and detailed figures in Bullletin No. 450.

Cotten Goods

Data for the cotton-goods manufacturing industry were obtained in 1926 from 151 establishments located in the following 12 States: Alabama, Connecticut, Georgia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hamp- shire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Virgmia. Data for hours of labor and earnings -were obtained for 46,879 males and 36,103 females, or e total o! 82,982 wage earners. Schedules from all establishments were 0! tained for a one-week pay period for all occupations except weaver, for whom a two-week pay period was taken.

Average full-time hours decreased 10.3 per cent between 1°15 and 1920. From 1920 to 1926 hours inereased 2.9 per cent. The avera? full-time hours per week for 1926 were 53.3.

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WORK OF BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 3

Between 1913 and 1920 earnings per hour increased 223.5 per cent and between 1920 and 1926 decreased 31.7 per cent. The average sarnings per hour in 1926 were 32.8 cents. From 1913 to 1920 aver- woe full-time earnings per week increased 191.8 per cent and from

1920 to 1926 decreased 29.7 per cent. Average full-time weekly earnings for 1926 were $17.48. Summary figures of this study were published in the February,

1927, Labor Review, and detailed figures in Bulletin No. 446. Woolen and Worsted Goods

In the study of wages and hours in the woolen and worsted goods industry in 1926 schedules were obtained from 112 establishments, loeated in the following 8 States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachu- setts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Data for hours of labor and earnings were obtained for 99152 males and 17,818 females, or a total of 39,970 wage earners. Schedules from all establishments were obtained for a one-week pay period for all occupations except weavers, for whom a two-week pay period was taken.

Average full-time hours decreased 13.8 per cent between 1913 and 1920, and increased 2.1 per cent between 1920 and 1926. The average full-time hours per week for 1926 were 49.3.

Between 1913 and 1920 earnings per hour increased 253.7 per cent and between 1920 and 1926 decreased 21.8 per cent. Average earn- ings per hour were 49.1 cents in 1926. Between 1913 and 1920 aver- age full-time weekly earnings increased 203.6 per cent and between 1920 and 1926 decreased 20.2- per cent. Average full-time weekly earnings were $24.21 in 1926.

Summaries of this study were published in the February, 1927, | Labor Review and detailed figures in Bulletin No. 443.

Men's Clothing

The 1926 data for the men’s clothing industry were taken from the June, July, and August pay rolls of the companies visited, and in- cluded 17,048 male and 16,611 female wage earners of 198 establish- ments operating 359 shops. The number of wage earners represents 17 per cent. of the wage earners in the industry in the United States and ‘prom y 27 per cent of the wage earners in the industry in the localities covered, according to the 1923 United States Census of Manufactures. The establishments covered in 1926 were located in 10 cities, besides a group of cities and towns in eastern Penn- sylvania outside Philadelphia.

Average hourly earnings for the industry as a whole in 1926 were 191.8 per cent higher than in 1913, more than three times that of 1911, 68 per cent higher than in 1919, and 3 per cent higher than in 1922, but were 1.3 per cent lower than in 1924. Average earnings per hour lor the industry were 25.6 cents.in 1914, 44.6 cents in 1919, 72.8 cents in 1922, 76 cents in 1924, and 75 cents in 1926. The earnings of males and of females as two separate groups were higher in 1926 than in 1924, The paradoxical decrease for the combined earnings of males and of females was due to a larger percentage of females in the industry in 1926 than in 1924. Between 1913 and 1926 full-time

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4 MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

hours decreased 14.3 per cent and full-time weekly earnings NCreased 151.4 per cent. .

Summary figures for the industry were published in the November 1926, Labor Review and detailed figures were published in Bulleti No. 435.

Iron and Steel

The field work for this study was begun early in 1926, and com. pleted about the middle of June. The 1926 data were obtained from 199 plants, located in i3 States, and included 75,109 wage eam. ers. ‘The plants covered have been grouped into four districts—th, “Eastern,” “Pittsburgh,” “Great Lakes and Middle West,” nj “Southern.” The wage earners covered were approximately 19 per cent of all employees in the industry, according to the United States Census of Manufactures for 1925.

Industry averages of full-time hours were 66.1 in 1913, 64.9 in 1914 65.5 in 1915, 63.1 in 1920, 63.2 in 1922, 55.2 in 1924, and 54.4 in 1999 Average earnings per hour were 30.1 cents in 1913 and 1914, 29.7 cents in 1915, 74.5 cents in 1920, 51.3 cents in 1922, 64.4 cents in 1924. ang 63.7 cents in 1926. Average full-time earnings per week were $18.99 in 1913, $18.60 in 1914, $18.65 in 1915, $45.65 in 1920, $31.67 in 1929 $35.22 in 1924, and $34.41 in 1926.

Average earnings per hour in 1926, by districts, for laborers, in all departments combined were 37.4 cents in the “Eastern” district, 45.2 cents in the “Pittsburgh” district, 45.8 cents in the “Great Lakes and Middle West” district, and 28.1 cents in the “Southern ”’ district, Average earnings per hour for laborers by departments, all districts combined, ranged from 35.7 cents in-puddling mills to 47.5 cents in sheet mills.

Summary figures for the industry were published in the September and October, 1926, and May, 1927, issues of the Labor Review, and detailed figures were published in Bulletin No. 442.

The representative of the bureau who visited Europe in the spring of 1926 found that in the iron and steel industry puddlers in Birming- ham, England, earned from $3.54 to $3.85 per 8-hour shift, and their helpers $2.12 to $2.31. In open-hearth furnaces in Birmingham the first melter earned about $9.34 per 8-hour shift, the second hand $6.31, the third hand $4.67, and the fourth hand $3.04. Stock- ers earned $2.09 per day and common laborers $1.70. In a sample blast furnace the keeper on an 8-hour day and seven shifts per week earned $27.83 per week, the charger (top filler) $22.78, the ore filler $21.63, the first stove man $19.44, the furnace laborer $12.91.

In Germany wages were obtained from several localities. The earnings per 8-hour day for blast-furnace keepers ranged from $1.58 to $2.07; stockers had a range of wages for a 10-hour day from $1.31 to $1.58, open-hearth melters from $2.17 to $2.74, and helpers from $1.83 to $2.45 per day.

Bituminous-coal Mining

Wage data for the 1926 study of the bituminous-coal mining indus- try covered pay rolls of 556 mines in 11 of the most important coal: producing States and comprised a total of 148,155 wage earners, 0! 25 per cent of the 588,493 mine workers reported in bituminous-co®l mining in 1925 by the United States Bureau of Mines.

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WORK OF BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 5

The three basic occupations in bituminous-coal mining are those of hand or pick mimers, machine miners (cutters), and hand loaders. They represent approximately 63 per cent of all wage earners in the industry. Average hours worked per half month based on time at the face or working place (including time for lunch) of loaders was 66.2 in 1922, 63.3 in 1924, and 73.7 in 1926; of hand or pick miners, 7] in 1922, 65.6 in 1924, and 77 in 1926; of machine miners, 75.4 in 1922, 72.9 in 1924, and 86 in 1926. Average gery per hour based S on time at the face (including time for iunch) of loaders was 90.2 cents in 1922, 81.1 cents in 1924, and 77.9 cents in 1926; of hand or pick miners, 84 cents in 1922, 80.9 cents in 1924, and 78.3 cents in 1926: of machine miners, $1.274 in 1922, $1.163 in 1924, and $1.195 in 1926.

Summary figures were published in the July, 1927, Labor Review and detailed figures in Bulletin No. 454.

Motor Vehicles

The field work for this study of wages and hours of labor in the motor-vehicle industry was taken up near the middle of October, 1925. The bulk of the data are for a pay period in October, Novem- ber, or December. The 1925 data covered a total of 140,930 male and 3,432 female wage earners in 99 ‘plants or establishments in 8 States. The number of wage earners covered represents 35.6 per cent of the total number reported in the 1923 Census of Manufactures.

Average full-time hours per week for the industry increased from 50.1 in 1922 to 50.3 in 1925. Average earnings per hour increased from 65.7 cents in 1922 to 72.3 cents in 1925. Average full-time earnings per week increased from $32.92 in 1922 to $36.37 in 1925.

Summary figures were published in the August, 1926, Labor Re- view, and detailed figures in Bulletin No. 438.

Hosiery and Underwear

Between October 1 and December 31, 1926, wage data were col- lected by the agents of the bureau from the pay rolls and other records of 105 representative establishments in the hosiery industry in 18 States and 85 representative establishments in the underwear industry in 15 States. Data were collected for 10,250 males and 20,296 females, or a total of 30,546 in hosiery, and for 2,860 males and 12,188 females, or a total of 15,048 in underwear.

The 1926 averages in the hosiery industry were: Full-time hours per week, 51.9; earnings per hour, 47.2 cents; and full-time earnings per week, $24.50. Averages for the underwear industry were: Full-time hours per week, 50.3; average earnings per hour, 37.8 cents; full- time earnings per week, $19.01. The averages for both industries combined were: Full-time hours per week, 51.3; earnings per hour, 44.3 cents; full-time earnings per week, $22.73.

Full-time hours per week for both industries combined decreased from an index of 100 in 1913 to 92.4 in 1926. Average earnings per hour increased from an index of 100 in 1913 to 266.6 m 1926. Aver- age full-time earnings per week increased from an index of 100 in 1913 to an index of 245.6 in 1926.

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6 MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

Summary figures were published in the May, 1927, Labor Reyja, and detailed figures m Bulletin No. 452.

Pottery

To supplement the study of wages, hours, and productivity j the pottery industry made in 1925, the bureau sent a representatiy, to Europe in the spring of 1926 to collect such data as could jy obtained in Great Britain and in Germany for comparison wit) American conditions. Government statistical offices, employers, an) trade-union officials were visited.

In the earthenware potteries of England it was found that mal plate makers earned an average of 37 cents per hour; females, 264 cents. -Male casters had an average earning of 33 cents per hour and females 17.7 cents., Pressmen in the slip house earned 34.5 cents poy hour; female lithographers, 15.2 cents per hour. The prevailing working time in the potteries was 84% hours per day and 47 hours per week. A plate-making crew of three (plate maker, mold runner. and finisher) made from 120 to 192 plates per hour.

Occupational wage figures for the pottery industry were not found available in Germany, owing in part to the German method of class- ing employees in skilled or unskilled groups rather than by occupa- tions.. Skilled male pieceworkers’ earnings ranged from 31.7 cents per hour in Berlin to 18.6 cents in small country places. Unskilled male time-workers’ earnings ranged from 17.9 cents per hour in Berlin to 13.1 cents in small country localities. These averages cover both earthenware and porcelain potteries. The prevailing hours were § per day and 48 per week.

Wage Studies in Progress

Wage studies for the followmg industries are now in progress: Slaughtering and meat packing; foundries and machine shops; eler- trical appliances and equipment for the home and shop; aluminum, copper, and brass ware; cotton-oil mills, compresses, and gins. These studies, as in the case of all other wage studies, are being made by special agents of the bureau, who themselves transcribe all the data derived from the records of the establishments visited.

Union Scales of Wages and Hours of Labor

AN OTHER important wage survey of the Bureau of Labor Stat's-

tics covers union scales of wages and hours of labor in selected trades and oceupations. This survey is made annually and is con- fined to the unions whese members work at time rates and which have definite agreements with their employers. In this work the bureau has seeured the cooperation of several of the State bureaus of labor, which obtain the information fromthe trade-unions in thei! States and furnish the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics wii! copies of reports.from such cities and,such unions as are contained !n the bureau’s list. Information on union, wages and. hours of labor 2 selected trades and occupations has been collected.back to 190. Data are obtained as of May 15 each year by personal. visits of specie! agents of the bureau in the case of 50 cities and by cooperation 0

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WORK OF BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 7

Vassachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Ohio State bureaus for the other 16 cities located within those States.

The report for 1927 covered bakers, building trades, chauffeurs and veamsters and drivers, granite and stone cutters, laundry workers, linemen, longshoremen, book and job and newspaper printing trades, and street-railway motormen and conductors. Trades in the above vroups are shown for 66 cities and inelude a total of 835,924 trade- ynion members for whom minimum wages and maximum hours under agreements are shown.

The average hourly wage rate for 1927 of all trades covered, except street-railway motormen and conductors, was $1.19; for motermen and conductors it was $0.682. The average hours for alk“roups except street-railway motormen and conductors were 45.2. N6 hours were shown in the case of motormen and conductors because of the irregular shifts worked.

The general index number for all trades combined showed that hourly rates of wages for 1927 were 159.5 per cent higher than in 1913, while hours per week were 7.3 per cent. lower than m 1913.

A bulletin is published each year including all trades and oceupa- tions covered in the survey. Im addition wages and hours for 20 of the principal trades in 40 localities are pwhlished in the September issue of the Labor Review and a summary for the year in the November issue.

Strikes and Lockouts and Collective Agreements

(CLOSELY eonnected with the wage studies of the bureau has been the work of the division which reports on strikes and lockouts and the division reporting on collective agreements and arbitration awards. Strikes and Lockouts

Since 1916 the Bureau of Labor Statistics has been compiling statistics of industrial disputes and publishing condensed statements thereof in the Labor Review. Prior to 1926 such publication had been made quarterly and annually, but beginning with November, 1926, a change was made to a monthly basis to conform with the bureau’s desire to publish its statistics monthly whenever pessible.

There is no legislation in the United States requiring the report- ing of strikes and lockouts to the Federal Government, and the bureau has no machinery for the prompt and full recording of such | disputes. For the initial reports of putes it must rely largely upon newspapers «nd other publications supplemented by informa- tion supplied by. the Conciliation Service of the Department of Labor. As a result the bureau’s records ean not be regarded as entirely complete. It is believed, however, that all the larger and more important strikes are duly recorded.

Until recently, in following up the preliminary reports of disputes, reliance Was antad chiefly upon correspondence, all parties to a controversy being written to and requested to fill out forms covering the principal items of information desired. This system was only partially successful, and beginning in the latter part of 1927, the Policy was adopted of using representatives of the department. to check up and complete the detailed reports desired. By this means

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8 MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

it is expected that in future the bureau’s monthly reports on strike; and lockouts will be greatly improved. ,

As shown by the data published by the bureau, the number; ,; industrial disputes in the United States for the past few years hg been at a low level. Thus in 1926 the number of disputes in whic) the number of persons involved was reported was only 783, wit) 329,592 workers affected, or a smaller number than in any other yo, since the beginning of the bureau’s reports in 1916. During 1927 the bituminous-coal strike greatly increased the number of workers affected by industrial disputes, but aside from this the number of disputes during 1927 has continued at a low level.

Collective Agreements and Arbitration Awards

The bureau makes every effort to obtain copies ef new collective agreements and arbitration awards. It has, however, no special equipment for this purpose and must rely largely on the labor unions and employers to furnish these documents. A careful search of the newspapers, trade-union journals, and labor papers is made in order to keep in touch with developments along this line.

After the agreements have been received, study is made of their contents and any new features or peculiarities or changes in condi- tions, or any items deemed for any reason to be worthy of mention are noted and printed in the Labor Review. Similarly, changes in wages or hours are also stated and printed monthly in the Review.

At the end of the year representative agreements made during the year are analyzed for pubtication in bulletin form. Bulletin No. 448 dealt with the year 1926.

Arbitration awards are similarly treated. Significant ones are printed, in whole or in part, in the Review, as are also decisions of unpartial chairmen in- various branches of the clothing industry in cities where impartial machinery has been set up, and decisions of the train service boards of adjustment.

Employment in Selected Manufacturing Industries

HE Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes monthly reports on em- plored in selected manufacturing industries, based on returns

obtained by correspondence from nearly 11,000 establishments. These reports show the number of people employed and the total amount of their earnings in one week in 54 of the most important manufacturing industries. Additional facts are given as to changes in rates of wages, changes in per capita earnings, and changes In operating time, and the percentage of full-time and part-time opera- tion for the plants as a whole.

Approximately three-fourths of the 11,000 establishments make reports directly to the bureau each month; the remaining establish- ments make reports to the bureau of labor of the State in which they are located, these bureaus in turn furnishing the Bureau. of Labor Statistics with a copy of the data, thereby saving a duplication of reports on the part of the establishments. At present this co- Bele ates arrangement is in force with seven States—California, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Wisconsin.

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‘index numbers, which show relatively the variations in number of jersons employed and in pay-roll totals in each industry surveyed, as ol] as for all industries combined, are published by the bureau, to- sether with charts, which show the course of employment over a ~ pies of months. These graphic charts make easily possible a com-

parison of industrial activities in the current month with conditions ‘) previous months, and especially with conditions in the same month of the preceding year, the last-named comparison being a most reliable measure of general industrial conditions. ‘That is, while variations ‘1 employment and pay-roll totals from month to month may truly ‘ndicate Inereases or depressions in business, the relative monthly levels are most sensitive to seasonal variations and hence may be wrongly interpreted, but when a comparison is made over a year’s rval the variation in levels is of the utmost significance.

The average index of employment in the first nine months of 1927 has been uniformly lower than the corresponding indexes for 1926. Pay-roll totals also have been lower in 1927 than in 1926, excepting the month of May, when the level was the same in 1927 as in 1926.

The collection of monthly employment data of this character makes gossible also a comparison of industrial conditions in the different sections of the United States and enables a study of the growth or decline of an industry in one section as compared with another section. For example, a study of the cotton-goods industry in the

Vew England States, the Middle Atlantic States, and the Southern States has just been published, covering the period from January, 1923, to May, 1927, which graphically pictures the remarkable changes which recently have taken place in the location of this industry. Similar studies are made from time to time, as variations in an industry become apparent and as means are available.

In handling the monthly data on employment every effort is made to secure prompt compilation and publication of the results. Under the system now employed, a mimeographed summary statement of the data for each month is released on or about the 15th of the succeeding month and a printed pamphlet containing all details is issued about a week later.

In addition to the compilation of data showing the volume of employment and the amount of pay roll the bureau shows (a) the percentage of establishments operating full time and part time and the average percentage of full time operated, and (6) the percentage of establishments operating with full force and part force, and the average per cent of full force employed. All of these items are shown by industries and by groups of industries.

Wholesale Prices

WHOLESALE prices in representative markets of the country are collected each month by the bureau for 550 commodities. In some instances prices for a particular grade or quality of an article of special importance are obtained in several different localities. In other instances prices for several different grades of an important article are obtained in the same locality. _ A majority of the price quotations are taken from standard trade journals. About one-third are furnished directly by manufacturers

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10 MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW

or sales agents. In a number of instances prices are furnished }, officials of boards of trade and similar bodies. As far as possi)j. the quotations for the various commodities are secured jin their primary markets. For example, the prices quoted for livestock gnq most animal products, as well as for most of the grains, are {o, Chicago; flour prices are mainly for Kansas City, Minneapolis, gy St. Louis; pig iron and steel for Pittsburgh; and so on.

The information collected by the bureau is published annually jy bulletin form, each bulletin containing monthly data for the